The Eusebian Form
As found in:
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Tishendorf in his eighth edition of the Greek N.T. prints Mt 28, 19. 20 thus:
His apparatus criticus suggest that verse 19 stands in all patristic quotations in the form given above. In all MSS and versions the passage is so read, though it may be remarked that in the oldest Syriac MS the folio which contained the end of Matthew has disappeared. Others besides Tischendorf have assumed that the patristic citations of Mt 28,19 endorse, with no exception, the received text. Thus Dr. A. Plummer in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible (Art. on Baptism, p. 252) writes: "The baptismal formula in Mat. 28, 19 is in all authorites without exception." And Renan in his work Les Evangiles ch. X writes of this text as follows: La formule du baptême s'est élargie et comprend sous une forme assez syncrétique les trois mots sacramentels de la théologie du temps, Père, le Fils, le Saint-Esprit. Le germe do dogme de la Trinité est ainsi déposé dans un coin de la page sacrée, et deviendra fécond."
The following testimonia from works of Eusebius imply another form of text:
Please note: Many of the following passages are given in Greek, with a few comments in English. I will provide here the English only. These quotes can be found in English under The Writings of Eusebius. I might mention that they are in a slightly different order there. RDH
1. Comment. in Psal.
Ed. Migne Vol. 23, col. 569:
We now give those passages of the earlier books of the Theophania in which Mat 28,19-20 is cited. The first of these is in III, 4, in Lee's version p. 159:
17. "Who, of
those that ever existed, is the mortal man, ... who bore all this preeminence...
and could effect so much, that he should be preached throughout the whole
earth? and, that his name should fill the hearing
and tongues of every people upon the face of the whole earth?
But this no man has done except our Saviuor alone, who said to his disciples by
word and fulfilled it by deed: "Go and teach all peoples."
[The Greek is given below in Nr. 20. It adds έν τω
μου which must here have stood in the
original. Here we catch the Syriac translator in the act of garbling his
"After his resurrection from the dead, all of them together, as was commanded them, went to Galilee, as he told them. But when they saw him some of them worshipt him, but others doubted. But he drew near, gazed on them and said, All power in heaven and on earth is given to me of my father. Go ye and make disciples of all peoples, and baptise them in the name of Father and Son and Holy Ghost. And teach them to observe all that I have commanded you. And, behold, I am with you always even to the end of the world."
And after a little p. 225 he continues thus:--
And on this account, he commanded
his disciples, not from the first, but now, that they should go around and
make disciples of all nations. But of necessity be added the mystery
of cleansing. For it was right, that those who should be converted from
among the heathen, should be cleansed by his power from all pollution and
uncleanness; because they ahd been defiled by the error of demons, and had been
holden by worship of idols, and by uncleanness of all sorts but had now first
been changed from that life of abomination and lawless practises. These
very persons then, did he admonish to teach, -- after this cleansing which is by
the mystery of his doctrine, -- not, that they should observe the precepts of
the Jews, nor yet the law of Moses, but all those things which he commanded them
to observe... He necessarily therefore stirred them up, and made them
readily to confide, -- to undertake the circuit of all peoples and to make
disciples of all races of men, through the promise by which he
counselled them, saying: Behold, I myself am with you.
23. The evidence of these later writings of Eusebius emphasises by contrast the form of text preserved in the rest of his works. He seems to have found in the codices of Caesarea the following form of text:
πορενθέντες μαθητύσατε πάντα τά έθνη έν τώ όνόματί μον, διδάcκοντεc αύτούc τηρεϊν πάντα όcα ένετειλάμην ύμϊν.
Go disciple ye all the nations in my name, teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you.
In passages 8 and 9, έν τώ όνόματί μον has perhaps been removed after έθνη by a scribe who resented so unusual a reading. [There is a footnote here that appears to be in both Latin and Greek] Both passages occur at the very beginning of the treaties, and so caught the eye of the casual reader. Few can ever have methodically perused so long and learned a work, and therefore the work of correction went no further. It is worthy to note that in the Greek fragment of the Theophany given in Migne P. G. vol. 24, col. 629 the context involves that verse 19 as well as 18 should have been cited. Verse 18 however stands alone. Verse 19 must have been left out by a copyist.
The passage from the Theophania take rank as independent evidence of the text used by Eusebius, although they repeat passages of his Demonstatio Evangelica and De Laudibus; for where a writer deliberately incorporates entire sections of an earlier work in a later, he must be held to endorse the character of the scripture citations which the earlier contains.
24. Nr. 18 of the above testimonies breaks the harmony of the other citations. The Syriac translator, obliged to render so long a consecutive passage from the Gospels, has merely availed himself of his Syriac Vulgate; and copied out from it the entire five verses. Those familiar with Armenia or Syriac versions know how common was this device of saving labour. At first sight the comment upon this citation when it speaks of the "mystery of cleansing," seems to involve the presence of βαππίζοντεc in the original Greek; but the definition which immediately follows of this cleansing, as being written as being "by the mystery of his doctrine," precludes the idea that the writer had in view the cleansing by the water of baptism, and rather suggest the exorcism at use of the name which preceded baptism, and were specially a "cleansing by his power" from the pollution of demons.
25. Thus we have some 17 attestations of the reading , to the exclusion of the words
36. The following questions therefore need to be discussed.
1. Is the Eusebian and Justin's reading of Mt 28:19 original?
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