What about Salvation
What about the Bible
Michael Servetus
About Me
Site Map



©Copyright 2000 Randall Duane Hughes

I think it would be everyone's desire to know God! In fact, it should be more important to know God than anything else! Because a correct understanding can lead to eternal life! John 17:3; 8:24; It should be more important than to defend a particular view of God, even when that view is proven inconsistent with the Bible! It is my prayer that God will speak through His Word as I have provided here for you. And in so doing, you would have a new understanding, a new revelation of who God really is as expressed in the Scriptures.

When was the Trinity revealed? This is no doubt the biggest question in my mind! In a search to find out who God is, this is the top question I am confronted with. The answer should be quite revealing!

While we walk by faith and not by sight, there is still a large part of our faith that is based upon history! I believe the Bible is true, not because YOU say it is, but because I can read it, and find things that have been proven true with history! Yes, there are a people on this earth called Jews who have a father named Abraham! Faith (in part) is based upon history! Yes, there are thousands of prophecies that have been made in the Scriptures, many have already come to pass! Thus, because of this historical record, I place my faith in the prophecies that have not been fulfilled as yet! Faith (in part) is based on history. So what is the "History of God?"


In Part I there are basically three areas we will look at:

1. The Historical Record (Old Testament)
2. The Historical Interpretation (Jews)
3. The Historical Revelations (Old Testament Dreams, Visions & Appearances)

The Historical Record reveals to us that for the first 4,000 years of man, The True God was viewed as absolutely ONE! There is almost 10,000 times in the Old Testament that we read of God as absolutely ONE!

There are some 7,742 times where God's name is used with singular verbs and pronouns! 1.)

Some 2,000 times where Elohim (Heb. plural word meaning God) is used with singular verbs and pronouns! 2.)

There is 40 times where God is called the "Holy One." 3.)

There is 13 times where God is said to be "alone."4. )

There are 12 times where the term "None else" is used to describe God. 5.)

That's right, there are over 9,807 times where God is spoken of in The Old Testament as being absolutely ONE! The words "Father" and "Spirit" are found  in the Old Testament in reference to God. 6.)  Not once does it indicate a "person" separate from God, in, or with God!  Nor did the Jews believe it to indicate divisions of parts or persons in their One God!

Within the Historical record there are also a few verses that seem to raise some questions. Trinitarians of our day point to verses such as: Genesis 1:26; 7.) 3:22; 11:7; 19:24; Psalms 2:7; 45:6,7; 110:1,4; Isaiah 6:8; 44:6; 48:16; And while at a glance they may seem confusing, in light of what has been pointed out above, they are rather easily explained.

Essentially there are some 12 verses that seem to indicate some plurality in God in the Old Testament. That is twelve verses with plurals or seemingly two or more "persons" (in only 3 of the 39 books!) mentioned against over 9,807 verses as singular!

The "us" found in Genesis 1:26; 3:22; 11:7; and Isa. 6:8; have two basic views.  Many view them as God speaking to the heavenly courts, the angels.  Gen. 3:24 and then Isa. 6:1-8, both indicate angelic activity within the context.  Gen. 1:26 and 11:7 also have historical Jewish record of this also as God addressing angels.  8.)  Also the Torah (See footnote 7.), views Gen. 1:26 as simply a "plurality of majesty." This by the people who wrote it. I would think that ought to carry some weight when you view the way a few of our words have changed in the past few years. "Bad" can mean "good" or "cool." "Gay" which used to mean "happy" or "fun," now generally is interpreted as meaning an alternate life style (though NOT in the eyes of God!). So should we view "us" in these instances to mean a "plurality of persons" when the original writers did not see it that way?

Then in Genesis 19:24, we find, "Then the LORD rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD in heaven." Do we have two LORD's here? Absolutely NOT! This would go against the teaching of the entire Bible! De. 6:4; Eph. 4:5 tells us explicitly, "ONE Lord!" Even the Trinitarian Creed's say "Not three LORD's but One LORD." So why the confusing wording? The LORD who is a Spirit that is everywhere, Psalms 139:7-12; was just moments before revealed in angelic form to Abraham, Genesis 18:1-33; Heb. 1:1; 2:16; and very possibly as he left Abraham, he rained down the fire and brimstone from heaven. Heaven is generally viewed as being the "location" of God. Even though, we know He cannot be "contained" to one location in that He is a Spirit that is everywhere! 1 Kg 8:27; Jer. 23:24;

The passages in Psalms are prophecies that were not as yet fulfilled at their writing, as we shall see in our third inquiry. And the two passages in Isaiah are easily explained. Isaiah 6 has been mentioned with angelic activity above.  In Isaiah 44:6, IF there are two here, which one is speaking? Remember One LORD! Thirteen times Isaiah refers to the "Redeemer" 9.) and it is understood this is ONE person, even their ONE God! In fact, Isaiah 63:16 indicates the Redeemer is also their father, their ONE God! Isaiah 64:8, Malachi 2:10, Jeremiah 31:1,9.

Something that I feel is very important to look at is the way these verses were historically interpreted by the Jews.

The Historical Interpretation of these passages is consistent with the majority of the passages. Surprise! That is the 9,807 or more passages rather than the twelve passages that are only found in 3 of 39 books!  We will review a few quotes to establish this.

"The Torah starts with the proclamation of the Only One, and later Judaism marches through the nations and ages of history with a never-silent protest against polytheism of every kind, against every division of the Godhead into parts, powers, or persons."

"The first pages of Genesis, the opening of the Torah, as well as the exilic portions of Isaiah which form the culmination of the prophets, and the Psalms also, prove sufficiently that at their time monotheism was an axiom of Judaism."

"The churchmen have attempted often enough to harmonize the dualism or trinitarianism of Christianity with the monotheism of the Bible. Still Judaism persist in considering such an infringement upon the belief in Israel's one and only God as really a compromise with heathenism. 'A Jew is he who opposes every sort of polytheism,' says the Talmud."

"The Jewish martyrs likewise cheerfully offered up their lives in His honor; and thus all hearts echoed the battle-cry of the centuries, 'Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One,' and all minds were illuminated by the radiant hope, 'The Lord will be King of the earth; on that day the Lord shall be One, and His name One.'" 10.)

We will also look at some statements by a Jew regarding Deuteronomy 6:4-9.

"These verses are learned by Jewish children when they begin to speak; they are uttered by Jews with their last breath before they die. They accompany Jews through life, giving form and unity to their existence. They are known by every Jew in every land, have been spoken aloud by untold generations, and have accompanied thousands of martyrs into death. They give unity to the generations."

"The first verse expresses our 'acceptance of the yoke of the Kingdom of Heaven' God is One and unique. His oneness transcends all other forms of oneness. God's oneness is absolute. He is not composed of parts. There is no other oneness like His, and human beings cannot fathom it" 11.)

When we read just a little bit about the customs of the Jews concerning this passage from Deuteronomy 6 we begin to realize why it is so difficult for them to convert to Trinitarianism. There was no division in their God. And not only was there no division of parts, powers, or persons, this was a thought that was reaffirmed to them constantly! They were to wear the Tefillin upon their foreheads and on their non-dominate arm, (also known as phylacteries). They were to place this passage (along with a few others) upon their doors, this being called the mezuzah. They were to touch it, and then kiss the fingers that did so, and think of their God and his commandments each time they went through the door. That ought to keep it pretty fresh in your memory! And it did so even in the face of death.

The Jewish writers understanding of God as being absolutely one has not escaped the attention of Trinitarians. 

"What does the Old Testament tell us of God?  It tells us there is one God, a wonderful God of life and love and righteousness and power and glory and mystery, who is the creator and lord of the whole universe, who is intensely concerned with the tiny people of Israel.  It tells us of His Word, Wisdom, Spirit, of the Messiah He will send, of a Son of Man, and a Suffering Servant to come.  But it tells us nothing explicitly or by necessary implication of a Triune God who is Father, Son, and Holy Spirit."  12.)

"We do not intend to seek in the Old Testament and in the New Testament what is not there, a formal statement of Trinitarian doctrine." 13.)

"More recent scholars find no evidence in the Old Testament that any sacred writer believed in or suspected the existence of a divine paternity and filiation within the Godhead itself."  14.)

"Thus the Old Testament writings about God neither express nor imply any idea of or belief in a plurality or trinity of persons within the one Godhead.  Even to see in them suggestions or foreshadowings or 'veiled signs' of the trinity of persons, is to go beyond the words and intent of the sacred writers."  15.)

So even today, Trinitarians admit that the Jew's who wrote the Old Testament, did not see themselves writing about a God who was in any way more than One!

And the Jews still today view God as absolutely One, with no divisions into persons, parts, or powers. This now takes us to the Historical Revelations.

The Historical Revelations are the way that God revealed Himself in the Old Testament.

There are several references in the Old Testament of God revealing and or speaking to man. In the New Testament, the writer of Hebrews 1:1 wrote, "God who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets." In other words, God spoke at various times and in various ways unto the fathers, including and primarily by the prophets. We will examine some of these various ways.

In Genesis 3:8 we find that "they (Adam & Eve) heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day." The Bible is not clear just what took place here. We do know that there was some form of communication between God and man. Whither God appeared as a theophanie [angelic form (Heb. 2:16)], or simply spoke to Adam and Eve, the Bible is not clear. But we do know that in some way or form God talked with man before the fall.

In Genesis 12 we find that God spoke to Abraham in verses 1-3. God then appeared to him in vs 7. It is believed that all appearances by God in the Old Testament were by theophanie. (Heb. 2:16) This was a common occurrence for Abraham. That is, God either speaking or appearing to him. This is repeated several times in the next 14 chapters, including God speaking to Hagar. In some of these instances it says specifically that it was the angel of the LORD. 16.) As stated above, this would have been God as a theophanie.

With the exception of chapter 18, these all appear to have been single angelic representation. Genesis 18 also appears that only One of the angles was actually a manifestation of God, although two other angels were also initially there, they continued on down to rescue Lot. There is absolutely NOTHING in this account to indicate that these other two angels were anything more than angelic messengers for Lot (Gen. 19:15)!

In Genesis 28:13-16 we have our first recorded heavenly vision, Jacob's ladder. And at the top stood "the" LORD! And he said, "I am the LORD God…" And in this heavenly vision there is absolutely NO mention of any second or third persons being seen!

In Genesis 32 Jacob wrestles with an angel. Jacob claimed to have seen "God face to face." Once again , only ONE. And wasn't Jacob glad! Think what kind of shape his thigh would have been in if he would have had to take "three" wrestlers on!  Heb. 2:16

Next the angel of the LORD appeared to Moses in the burning bush in Exodus 3:2. This being one of the "divers manners."

In Exodus 13:21 "the LORD went before the children of Israel by day in a pillar of cloud… and by night in a pillar of fire" And spoke to them from the cloud. Exodus 19:9,19; 20:21; 23:20-23; 24:15-18; 33:10; 40:34-38; Psalms 99:7.

In Exodus 24:10-11; the Bible tells us that Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and the seventy elders of Israel "saw the God of Israel..."  In light of verses such as John 1:18; 5:37; 1 Tim. 1:17; 6:16; Col. 1:15; 1 John 4:12; I believe this to be a theophanie.  God revealed in an angel form.

In Exodus 33:11 we have much the same situation, most likely a theophaine.  Verses 20-23 reiterates that God's face cannot be seen!

In Numbers 22:22-35, the angel of the LORD appeared first to Balaam's donkey. The LORD then spoke through the donkey! This being one of the most unique of the "divers manners" in which God spoke.

The angel of the LORD is said to have spoken numerous times in the Old Testament. In that they were always with a single voice, they offer little other evidence compared to the visual appearances. Thus we will focus on the appearances.   See Chart 1

A single angel of the LORD appeared to Joshua, Joshua 5:13-15; Gideon, Judges 6:11-25; Manoah and his wife, Judges 13:3-5,9-21; David, 2 Samuel 24:16-17; 1 Chronicles 21:15-16,18,27; Elijah, 2 Kings 1:3; & killed the Assyrian's, 2 Kings 19:35; Isaiah 37;

The prophet Micaiah saw "the LORD sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him on his right hand and on his left." 1 Kings 22:19; 2 Chronicles 18:18; No mention of co-eternal, co-equal, persons with him! In spite of him clearly seeing both the right and left hand sides!

In Job 1:6 and 2:1 we find the "sons of God." 17.) But NOT "God the Son" or "God the Holy Ghost!" There is only mention of the LORD as a single deity.

In Isaiah's vision recorded in his 6th chapter, we only find "the LORD" high and lifted up. Still no sightings of the other persons!

In Ezekiel 1:26-28, and again in 2:1, he saw "the appearance of the glory of the LORD." And only one spake.

What is most significant about these past two visions is they occurred AFTER Psalms 2:7; 45:6-8; 110:1,4; These Psalms are believed to have been written between 1014-985 BC. Isaiah is believed to have written this passage in 748 BC and Ezekiel is believed to have written his in 593 BC. 18.) In other words almost 400 years AFTER David wrote about the "Son" there was still NO "Son" seen in heaven! This proving these Psalms to have been prophesies!

One of the most unique visions in the Old Testament is in Daniel 7. This vision does speak of "one like the Son of man" who then comes before the "Ancient of days." The vision is told some four times. In the retelling the "Son of man" is not mentioned? This vision is one of future relevance!   See Chart 2   This is all prophetic! What is most incredible is the description given to the Ancient of days here in Daniel is almost word for word exactly as the description given to Jesus in Revelation 1. The reason for this time period of seeming separation would be during the time when Jesus, in the days of his flesh, is our High Priest, Advocate, Mediator, etc. There is coming a time when all the mediator roles of Christ will be done away with and then "God shall be all in all!" When the Son of man shall come in his glory… THEN shall he sit upon the throne of his glory." Matthew 25:31. The greatest significance to this vision as relating to God, the "Son" is NOT called "God the Son!" But is seen as a man! He was Not viewed as an equal "being" with God in this vision!

So after having reviewed the Historical Record, Interpretation, and Revelation in the Old Testament we find that IF God is a Trinity He has done everything in His power to conceal this "doctrine." Thus for the first 4,000 years of mankind, God revealed Himself as absolutely ONE!

There is one more verse that is significant to look at before we go to the New Testament.

In the writings of the last prophet before the 400 years of silence, we find the following statement about God.

"For I am the LORD, I change not;" Malachi 3:6

So for these 4,000 years we find that God revealed Himself as absolutely ONE! This being consistent in the Historical Record, in the way His people interpreted it, and God's manner of Revelations!

This now brings us to the New Testament. We have the various ways God revealed himself in the Old Testament fresh in our minds. What will God do next?

Part II

Now in the New Testament we find that is God speaking to His people in a different way. We can look again to Hebrews 1:1-2. "God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, 2Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son…"

In this Part we are going to look at:

1. What was said about Jesus
2. What is learned from Jesus Baptism

3. What is said about His flesh
4. What Jesus said about Who He was
5. What Jesus said about the supposed other "Persons"
6. Concluding Thoughts


What was said about Jesus as was prophesied in Isaiah 7:14. "Emmanuel, God with us." Now is fulfilled in Matthew 1:23! Some more History to base faith upon! But what does the verse say? "God the Son" with us? NO! The "Second Person" of the Trinity with us? NO! That isn't said at all! But God with us! No qualification as to it just being a part of God! This would of course go against the way The True God was Historically interpreted for the past 4,000 years. In fact, Colossians 2:9 speaking of Jesus says, "For in him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily." Notice the Godhead was IN Him! Not Him IN the Godhead as the Trinity relegates Him! This was all the fullness of God dwelling in a body among men. 1 Timothy 3:16

Let us look back to the writings of Isaiah again to see just who this baby born is going to be. "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace."

Think about that! The Jews believe in absolutely One God. This God is at times called their Father, Deuteronomy 32:6; Isaiah 63:16; 64:8; Jeremiah 31:1,9; Malachi 2:10. And this "Son" will be called the "Eternal Father!" 19.) Or "Father Forever!" 20.)

And yet he is called a Son? Why would this be? In that God is who He is, what ever He does is usually just a little bit different than how we do it. God, who is a single (Eph. 4:4, 1 Cor. 12:13) invisible (Rom. 1:20; Col. 1:15; 1 Tim. 1:17) Spirit (John 4:24) caused a child to be born. In that he fathered this child, it is fitting that he be called "Father." And in that He had procreated this body it was fittingly called "Son." Heb. 1:5, Psalms 2:7.  Both of these verses speak of this Father-Son relationship as beginning on a day in time!  I will be to him a Father, and he shall be  to me a Son.

We find a couple of terms regarding this. Jesus is called the "Son of man" eighty-eight times in the New Testament, all the way to Revelation 14:14. And He is called the "Son of God" 46 times all the way to Revelation 2:18. These two terms are probably best able to describe the dual nature of Jesus. Jesus was of a genre all His own! He is the "Only begotten." God never has or will cause another Son to be born! Thus Jesus possessed a dual nature.  He was both God and man!

  What is learned from Jesus Baptism. This being a favorite passage often used to "prove" the Trinity?

"And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him: 17And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." Mt 3:16-17

"And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him." Jn 1:32

Any good Trinitarian can tell you that the voice was the Father and the Dove represents the Holy Spirit, and of course Jesus is the Son. Thus there you have the "three persons" of the Trinity! Just pretty simple, right?

Lets inquire just a little bit further. In John 5:37, Jesus said that no man has heard the voice or seen the shape of the Father! So right away, that means it wasn't the Father that was heard at the baptism! But there is even additional proof! The Father (as in the supposed "first person" of the Trinity) wasn't really the Father of Jesus! The doctrine of the Trinity maintains that there are the "Three distinct persons" in the Godhead. These of course being the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. We read in Matt. 1:18,20; and Lk 1:35; that it was the Holy Spirit that performed the act of paternity! Thus, all we have is two representatives present at the baptism. The Spirit and the Son!

A closer look reveals that a voice does NOT a "Person" make! In other words, just because we have a voice does not mean we have a "separate person!" God spoke through a Donkey, Numbers 22:28, and Jesus said he could make the stones cry out praise to him! Luke 19:40.

Also, the "dove" floating down and "abiding" on him! There are several possibilities here! Isa. 46:11, tells us God can call a ravenous bird to go anywhere he wants! Also, it is doubtful John truly saw a dove. This is most likely a simile! "Like a dove." I doubt Jesus had a dove on his shoulder throughout his ministry!

What we have to remember here is that God is GOD! He can do what he wants with anything He wants! If he wants you to hear a voice, you are going to hear a voice even if you are deaf! He can make you hear it if he has to stir up the molecules to create the sound! If he wants you to see a dove, you will see a dove even if you are the only one in a crowd who does!

The voice and dove were simply signs given by God, so John would know that Jesus was the Lamb of God! And thus no real proof of a Trinity!

What is said about His flesh. Because Jesus was both God and man, (He had a dual nature) He was unique in several ways! But he also was a man just like you and I in ALL THINGS! Hebrews 2:14-18; 4:15; This is critical to understand!  Considering the following:

Do (or did) you grow physically? So did Jesus.  Luke 2:40, 52;
Do you know joy?  So did Jesus. Luke 10:21;
Do you feel sorrow? So did Jesus. Matthew 26:37;
Do you ever weep? So did Jesus. John 11:35;
Do you ever get weary? So did Jesus. John 4:6;
Do you ever sleep?  So did Jesus.  Luke 8:23;
Do you ever get thirsty? So did Jesus. John 4:7;
Do you ever get hungry? So did Jesus. Luke 4:2;
Have you ever been tempted? So was Jesus. Luke 4:2;
Do you have to work? So did Jesus. Mark 6:3;
Can you know poverty? So did Jesus. Luke 9:58;
Have you ever been spit upon? Jesus was. Mark 14:65;
Have you ever been rejected? Jesus was. Luke 9:22;
Have you ever been mocked, or been made fun of? Jesus was. Matthew 27:29;
Has a friend ever betrayed you? Jesus was betrayed. Matthew 26:47-50;
Have you ever been deserted by all of your friends? So was Jesus. Matthew 26:31;
Do you sometimes bleed? So did Jesus. John 19:34;
Will you someday die? So did the man Christ Jesus. John 19:30;
Do you ever pray? So did Jesus. Mark 1:35; John 11:41-42;
Do you ever feel God forsaken? So did Jesus. Matthew 27:46;
Do you have a God? So did the man Jesus! John 20:17; Eph. 1:17;

While it was true that He was a genre unlike any other, He also was quite a bit like us also! In fact, the Bible says "…in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren." And so as a man there were the same "human" constraints, constrictors, limitations, etc. that you and I face.

The last three items in this list are often the most shocking to people. Jesus was God manifest in the flesh and He prayed? Sure did! More than once in fact! How much more should we pray!

Consider this. Do you have God's Spirit inside of you? Why do you pray? Because "mankind" is supposed to pray! The Bible commands us to pray.  So what kind of example (1 Peter 2:21) would Jesus have been had He not prayed? Colossians 2:9 tells us that "all the fullness of the Godhead was in him bodily." Yet He prayed. The Spirit was given not by measure unto him, John 3:34. Yet He prayed.

He felt God forsaken because we feel God forsaken sometimes! All things and all points he was a man like us!

And to really experience what it was like to be a man, He also had a God! Philippians 2:8 tells that because He was "…in fashion as a man he humbled himself…" He knows what its like. He has walked a mile in our moccasins, thus He is a righteous Judge!

One last point relating to Jesus as a man. Although He was God manifest in the flesh, as already stated there were human restrictions he had to endure. One area of limitation was His knowledge. That is, at least His knowledge of one event (possibly others as well). Matthew 24:36, and Mark 13:32 both tell us that "no man knoweth" the day and the hour of the end of the world, but the Father only. These readings are particularly interesting IF God were a Trinity. It is as if Jesus goes through the list of those who might should know. The Son, the angels, they don't know. Only the Father. Interesting that the Holy Spirit was NOT included in the list? In that the supposed "third person" was NOT a man, "He" would not have had the same constrictors that Jesus did as a man. Thus "He" (the "third person") should have qualified to know and should have been included in the list of dwellers in Heaven privy to information. That is of course, IF God were a Trinity!

What Jesus said about Who He was. He never came right out and said I am God! He came close a few times! In John 10:30-33 and they almost stoned him, because "being a man, makest thyself God." In John 6:15, after the miracle of the loaves and fishes they were going to take Him by force and make Him King! And in John 8:58-59; 5:17-18; (Isa. 40:25;) were other occasions in which He was nearly stoned for the way He spoke of himself!

But Jesus couldn't allow such. He couldn't say it openly and plainly. For His plan to be fulfilled He had to be crucified! And that would not have happened had they realized who He was. "Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of Glory." 1 Corinthians 2:8

And so Jesus spoke about who He was in parables. John 16:25 Jesus says, "These things have I spoken unto you in proverbs: but the time cometh, when I shall no more speak unto you in proverbs, but I shall shew you plainly of the Father." The word "proverbs," is defined as: "Or in parables, or metaphors," p a r o i m i a i V (paroimiais) "There is some difficulty in defining this

word precisely: a translation like "parables" does not convey accurately the meaning. BAGD 629 s.v. p a r o i m i a suggest in
general "proverb, "maxim," but for Johannine usage "dark saying," figure of speech, in which especially lofty ideas are concealed. In the preceding context of the Farewell Discourse Jesus has certainly used obscure language and imagery at times: In the LXX this word is used to translate the Hebrew mashal which covers a wide range of figurative speech, often containing obscure or enigmatic elements." 21.) This verse is remarkable in that IF God were a Trinity, as yet unrevealed, why wouldn't He show plainly of the "third person" also? The reason? There is but One God who is a Spirit!

Lets look at how Jesus "concealed" and yet "revealed" who He was. The "enigmatic manner" He spoke as John primarily wrote.

I AM not doing the things you see me do! John 5:17, 19, 30, 36, 8:28, 29, 9:4, 10:25, 32, 37, 14:10, 11, 31, 17:4
I AM not saying the things you hear me say! John 7:16-18, 8:28, 29, 38, 12:49, 50, 14:24, 31, 16:15
I AM not the one you see when you look at me! John 12:45, 14:7, 9
I AM not the one you know when you know me! John 8:19, 14:7, 9, 16:3
I AM not the one you receive when you receive me! John 13:20
I AM not who you acknowledge when you acknowledge me! 1 John 2:23
I AM not the one you deny when you deny me! 1 John 2:22, 23
I AM not the one you love when you love me! 1 John 5:1
I AM not the one you believe in when you believe in me! John 12:44
I AM come in someone else's name! John 5:43, 12:28, 17:6
I AM the image of that someone else! Colossians 1:15, 19, Heb. 1:3
Except ye believe that I AM ye shall die in your sins! John 8:24-27
JESUS IS JEHOVAH of the Old Testament, The ONE GOD, the Father, Revealed in flesh! Exodus 3:14; 1 Timothy 3:16

One of the most significant things this above list reveals is that Jesus was NOT "God the Son!" IF He would have been, then He would have done all of the above things by the power of the co-equal, co-eternal "second person!" This was not the case! He was God the Father manifest in flesh! 1 Tim. 3:16.

Instead, this proves right along with the prophesies of the Old Testament that He was "Emmanuel," and "his name shall be called… the everlasting Father."

What Jesus said about the supposed other "Persons"   this being one of the most revealing things about who God is.

During the three and a half years of His ministry, He would have the greatest opportunity to clearly reveal, at least in parable form (just as we have seen above how He revealed He was the Father) that God was a Trinity. Here was His opportunity to introduce the "others," and to set the Jews straight! Instead He reaffirmed their belief in One God! John 4:22, Mark 12:29-30. So we will look at some of the things Jesus said about His "co-equal-persons."

It is an amazing fact that Jesus only specifically mentioned the supposed "third-person" thirty-five times as recorded in Matthew-Mark-Luke-John-Acts. That is contrasted by 178 references to the Father. Thus the "third-person" is the weak link to the Trinity. In that Jesus was the Father (Spirit) manifest in flesh, all references to the Father were done so as to conceal His true identity as mentioned above in John 16:25. Thus we will take a look at these 35 references made by Jesus about the "third person."

As we view these references, remember the people Jesus was speaking to were those we read about in Part I as having an absolutely singular view of God! No divisions of parts or persons. Will Jesus clear up their "misunderstanding?"








Spirit (Holy)

Mt. 10:19 & 20
Mt. 12:28

Mt.12:31 & 32

Mt. 22:43

Matt. 28:18-20

Mk 3:38-39
Mark 12:36

Mark 13:11


Luke 4:13
Luke 11:13

Lk 12:10-12


John 3:5,6,8
John 3:34
John 4:24
Jn 7:39

John 14:17
John 14:26
John 15:26
Jn 16:13

John 20:22

 Acts 1:5
Acts 1:8





Jn 14:16-18
John 14:26

John 15:26
Jn 16:7-15


Living Water




John 4:10,14
Jn 7:37-39



Promise of the Father



 Luke 24:49


Acts 1:4

Total of  35 Times

6 times

3 times

5 times

18 times

3 times


It is clear John records more of Jesus speaking about the Spirit than any other writer, with three times as many references. In fact more than the others combined! But if Jesus is indeed presenting a radical new truth about the God the Jew's served for the past 4,000 years, wouldn't all the writers feel obligated to help in this revelation? That is if they indeed understood and believed it themselves? Or was it a "later" revelation in 325 AD? 381 AD? Or after the first five centuries as Fortman says!  (See footnote 23. below)

Since the Trinity was not revealed in the Old Testament, we should find Jesus revealing it in the New! Here are the 35 account of Jesus speaking of the Spirit in the New Testament. (If you consider the parallel passages, the total is more like 27 than 35! Two of MT's are also in MK and LK, the third one from MK is in MT [making all of MK's in MT also] and one of LK's is in Acts, leaving only 27 original references) And then considering references such as: "Living Water," and "Promise of the Father" do little to reveal a "third person" also, leaving us with about 21 actual possible references to really work with. But we will look at all 35 below.

Matt. 10:19 & 20
"But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak: for it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak. 20For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you."

(Parallel's with MK 13:11, and LK 12:11-12)

Is it not inconceivable, that Matthew waited until now for his first mention of the Spirit by Jesus? And this passage gives no indication the Father and the Spirit are distinct and separate! Think of it! The Sermon on the Mount in chapters 5, 6, & 7. The Lord's prayer (within this Sermon). All without a hint of a third person within the Godhead! Such a critical omission did not escape the notice of some Trinitarian scribes!  There are some manuscripts in which there is the certainly spurious, and late Trinitarian addendum.  "...the glory of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit for ever. Amen."  These manuscripts are: MS 157 and MS 225 are dated 12th century.  MS 418 is dated 15th century!  22.)  Jesus even fed 5,000 men plus women and children in Mt. 14, and 4,000 men plus women and children in Mt. 15. Surely these would have been some of His largest crowds! Is it not inconceivable that the Spirit is not mentioned in these settings? (While it is understood that Jesus did not cover every point of doctrine on everyday (or at least the Disciples did not record him to have). The lack of mentioning this considering the Jew's central thoughts about God being so contrary, IF the Trinity were a doctrine Jesus meant to reveal, surely He would have spoken on the subject more!) But here there is no distinction made to help these Jews understand this was really "two other persons!"

Matt. 12:28 "But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God is come unto you."

Once again no real distinction, between God, the Father, or the Spirit! Or are these Jew's and Disciples suppose to understand this is really a distinct person (although only mentioned once before by Matthew's account) from the Father Jesus has been speaking of? Considering that the Jew's considered God who is a Spirit to be their Father! Deuteronomy 32:6; Isaiah 63:16; 64:8; Malachi 2:10; etc.

Matt. 12:31 & 32 "Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Spirit shall not be forgiven unto men. 32And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come."

(Parallel's with MK 3:29, LK 12:10)

This is a very critical passage of Scripture! In Mathew 12, here Jesus really make no distinction between the "Spirit of God" in verse 28 and the Spirit in verse 31! In fact, in verse 31, "Holy," is added by translators. If you were in the audience when Jesus said this, would you have known this was to mean the "third person?" Since once again the Jew's God is a Spirit who's greatest attribute is his Holiness? (Lev. 11:44-45, 19:2, 20:3, 26, 21:8, etc.) Notice Jesus does not mention blasphemy against the Father who he has been speaking of for the past 9 chapters (Jesus really doesn't speak of the Father prior to Chapter 4)! Is the listener suppose to know they are different persons? And does this mean the Father cannot be blasphemed? And then consider Jesus said the "works" He did were done by the Father! John 5:17, 19, 30, 36, 8:28, 29, 9:4, 10:25, 32, 37, 14:10, 11, 31, 17:4; Clearly the Spirit here is in reference to the Father, who is God, who is a Spirit! John 4:24. Who is manifest in Jesus Christ! 1 Timothy 3:16; Thus a great opportunity is passed up for Jesus to even in some parable form to indicate a "third person."

Matt. 22:43 "He saith unto them, How then doth David in Spirit call him Lord, saying, 44The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool? 45If David then call him Lord, how is he his son?"

(Parallel's with MK 12:36)

This passage raises many questions. If God is a Trinity of three co-equal, co-eternal persons, why aren’t all three on the throne? Where is the Spirit in relationship to this throne? Does this passage reveal a Trinity? When you consider the Jew were well aware of this passage from the Psalms and did not find within it a plurality of deity, how could it be said this was Jesus revealing the Trinity? Particularly when NO Old Testament vision revealed co-equal persons? Always singular representation!

Matt. 28:18-20  "And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. 19Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit: 20Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen."

If God were indeed a Trinity, why would one member have all power? Why is "name" singular in verse 19? Did the Disciples understand this to mean a Trinity? If so, why did they not use these "titles" in the Book of Acts when they baptized? What about the Eusebian Form?  23.)  And why is it Jesus that is with them to the end of the World, instead of the "Trinity?" So thus one of the seemingly most conclusive verses Trinitarians have in the entire Bible is surrounded with questions regarding its "true" meaning. And then the Disciples and Jew's understanding of it! So if God is a Trinity, Jesus waited until He was practically in the air, and Matthew's next to last verse to give his best attempt which actually did little or nothing to reveal Him as such! In the six verses in Matthew that referenced the "third person" the readers certainly were not left with a distinct knowledge of a God in "three persons!" And particularly did not make an obvious distinction to these Jew's in regards to their historical view of God! If God were indeed a Trinity, why would one member have all power? Why is "name" singular in verse 19? Did the Disciples understand this to mean a Trinity? If so, why did they not use these "titles" in the Book of Acts when they baptized? What about the Eusebian Form?  23.)  And why is it Jesus that is with them to the end of the World, instead of the "Trinity?" So thus one of the seemingly most conclusive verses Trinitarians have in the entire Bible is surrounded with questions regarding its "true" meaning. And then the Disciples and Jew's understanding of it! So if God is a Trinity, Jesus waited until He was practically in the air, and Matthew's next to last verse to give his best attempt which actually did little or nothing to reveal Him as such! In the six verses in Matthew that referenced the "third person" the readers certainly were not left with a distinct knowledge of a God in "three persons!" And particularly did not make an obvious distinction to these Jew's in regards to their historical view of God!


Mark 3:22
"And the scribes which came down from Jerusalem said, He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of the devils casteth he out devils."

Mark 3:38-39 "Verily I say unto you, All sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith soever they shall blaspheme: 29But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal damnation: 30Because they said, He hath an unclean spirit."

Here in Mark 3, Jesus once again mentions blasphemy against the Holy Spirit and fails to mention the Father? But in light of the context, Jesus mentions blasphemy against the Holy Spirit because they said He did miracles by Beelzebub? But wasn't it the Father who did the works? John 5:17, 19, 30, 36, 8:28, 29, 9:4, 10:25, 32, 37, 14:10, 11, 31, 17:4; Thus this is a clear indication that He is referring to the Father, who is a Spirit!

Mark also, manages to tell of the feeding of the 5,000+ in Mark 6, and the 4,000+ in chapter 8 without mentioning the "Spirit."

Mark's next reference to the Holy Spirit is the same as Matt. 22:43-45.

Mark 12:36 "For David himself said by the Holy Spirit, The LORD said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool."

If the Trinity is made up of three co-equal, co-eternal members, then why aren’t all three on the throne? And where is the Holy Spirit in relationship to this throne? (See Matthew 22:43-45 above for additional issues)

Mark 13:11 "But when they shall lead you, and deliver you up, take no thought beforehand what ye shall speak, neither do ye premeditate: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak ye: for it is not ye that speak, but the Holy Spirit."

Does this sound like a third person, or simply God's Spirit anointing? Thus Mark fails to give a conclusive revelation to the Trinity! These being all the references by Jesus to the Holy Spirit mentioned in Mark! This is believed to have been the oldest Gospel! Thus the first writer of the Gospel does not present a very clear understanding of God as a Trinity! There is a reason!

Luke 4:13
"The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised,"

This is the Spirit of Jehovah, from Isa. 61:1. Is this different than the Holy Spirit? Is there anything about this passage to indicate it as such? In light of only One Spirit! Eph. 4:4, 1 Cor. 12:13, Ps. 139:7, John 4:24. As has been already presented, the Father was the one doing all of the above mentioned things! Thus this is NOT a reference to a "third person

In chapter 9, Luke also bypasses the feeding of the 5,000+ without a reference to the "third person."

Luke 11:13 "If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children: how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him?"

The Father gives the third person? Does this sound like a separate person from the Father, or simply the Father, who is a Spirit, giving of himself to those asking him? If God is a Trinity, co-equal and co-eternal, why couldn't you ask the Holy Spirit directly?

Luke 12:10-12 "And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Spirit it shall not be forgiven. 11And when they bring you unto the synagogues, and unto magistrates, and powers, take ye no thought how or what thing ye shall answer, or what ye shall say: 12For the Holy Spirit shall teach you in the same hour what ye ought to say."

Once again blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is mentioned with no mention of the Father? And then mentioning that the Holy Spirit will anoint you to speak. Is this a third person? Think of this! Jesus is revealing the Trinity to these Absolutely Monotheistic Jews. Surely these writers realize the importance of making this known! How is the Holy Spirit that teaches you in verse 12 different from the "Spirit of the Father" in Matt. 10? Particularly since there is but One Spirit! There is no difference! For more issues see above. MT 12 & Mk 3.

There is one other way that Luke spoke of the Spirit.

Luke 24:49 "And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high."

(Parallel's with Acts 1:4)

Once again an absolutely non-conclusive statement that does not reveal God's Spirit as a distinct "third person."

The writers all said, let John do it? That is, he will offer the best "proof" text for the Trinity. With the exception of Matt. 28:19 you will seldom hear discussion about the person of the Spirit, or the Trinity as a whole from the first three Gospels.

Amazingly, John is the last Gospel written! Composed between 85-95 AD. That would mean it took 55-65 years after Jesus ascended for the supposed "Trinity" to have its best defense written. And please understand, in NO way do I feel that John reveals a Trinity either! John will in several of his references use different words to describe the Spirit in the same verse.

John 3:5 "Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. 6That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 7Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again. 8The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit."

Does this sound like Jesus is trying to reveal a third person with him?

John 3:34 "For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him."

Who is God in this verse? The Father, giving to the Second person the Third person? Or God manifesting himself in flesh, 1 Tim. 3:16, Col. 2:9. Or is God the Trinity? Thus we would have two Sons!

John 4:10 & 14 "Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water. 14But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life."

Definitely sounds like a "third person" here? NOT!

John 4:24 "God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth."

So now once again the question, who is God here? Is it the Father, or the Holy Spirit? Or all three of the Trinity? So who is the Spirit? There is only One Spirit, Eph. 4:4, 1 Cor. 12:13, Ps. 139:7! And it is clear from the context here in John 4:22-24 that the Father's substance is Spirit, and this reference is to the Father!

John also, in chapter 6 fails to tell of Jesus revealing God as a Trinity to the 5,000+ here. Was He selective as to who he told? With his other parables he just told them outright and left the Jew's to try and figure them out. Some he would explain to his Disciples. But never a clear explanation of the "God in three persons!"

John 7:37-39 "In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink. 38He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. 39(But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Spirit was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)"

Here John clarifies that Jesus is referring to the Holy Spirit as the living water.

John 14:16-20 "And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever; 17Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. 18I will not leave you comfortless: I will come to you. 19Yet a little while, and the world seeth me no more; but ye see me: because I live, ye shall live also. 20At that day ye shall know that I am in my Father, and ye in me, and I in you."

Trinitarians try to say that the word "another" means a different person. While a different means, manner, or way, of comfort works here also! Particularly in light of the context! While Jesus is speaking of this other means of comfort being sent, he says "I will not leave you orphans (comfortless), I will come to you! Then Jesus says, at the day when you see me no more, I shall be in you! Alright, the Disciples knew the Spirit of Truth (John 14:6) because he was with them, (Jesus IS the one with them!) and would be in them! This make Jesus the Holy Spirit! Or the same Spirit within him is the Holy Spirit!

John 14:26 "But the Comforter, which is the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you."

Here is a single verse with Jesus speaking in which he mentions the "other two." But does this indicate a Trinity of persons? Or God who fathered a body, sending his Spirit to believers in His name, which is also the name he gave to his image or Son (body). Col. 1:15, John 5:43.

John 15:26 "But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:"

Once again, another verse with reference to the supposed other "persons". What about John 14:6 &17? Didn't Jesus say in that passage HE was the Spirit of Truth? A portion of the same Spirit that dwelt in Jesus Christ would dwell in believers!

John 16:7-15 "Nevertheless I tell you the truth; It is expedient for you that I go away: for if I go not away, the Comforter will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. 8And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment: 9Of sin, because they believe not on me; 10Of righteousness, because I go to my Father, and ye see me no more; 11Of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged. 12I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. 13Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come. 14He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you. 15All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that he shall take of mine, and shall shew it unto you."

Question: IF they were three different "persons," then why must one go away before the other can come? The Comforter is just another means of God dwelling with his people! But it is different in that instead of just being with them, He is in them! The Spirit of Truth. Who is Truth personified? John 14:6, Jesus Christ! Throughout the Bible there are many inanimate objects that are referred to with personal pronouns without any intent to indicate a person! Wisdom in Proverbs, is often personified as a woman with personal pronouns used.

John 20:22 "And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Spirit:"

Nothing here that indicates the Spirit to be a "third person."

So in spite of the additional references by John, the meaning is NO clearer! Jesus has still not revealed God as a Trinity!

Acts 1:4-5
"And, being assembled together with them, commanded them that they should not depart from Jerusalem, but wait for the promise of the Father, which, saith he, ye have heard of me. For John truly baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days hence."

There is nothing to indicate that these were co-lateral persons with Jesus!

Acts 1:8 "But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Spirit is come upon you: and ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth."

Concluding Thoughts.  Now consider this. If you were a Jew (you know their background) hearing Jesus speak of the Holy Spirit, would you be convince that he was meaning a third person within the Godhead? Could you piece it all together? You would struggle if all you had was Matthew, Mark, and Luke to go on! And that is not to say the Trinity is revealed in John, just there is more opportunity for confusion with the many references to the Spirit.

The revelation of the Trinity actually was brought over from Grecian thought and philosophy and was put to "Christianity" by Tertullian 160-220 AD, (as well as others) and was made a dogma of the Church in 325 AD, at the Nicean Council. And then added to at Constantinople in 381 AD, and the following councils.

Jesus never intended for God to be viewed differently than the One and Only God of the Jew's! In fact, Jesus makes this clear on several occasion. John 4:22, Jesus said the Jew's were correct in their worship of God! In Mark 12:29-34, Jesus reaffirms the Jew's understanding of the Deu. 6:4, "Hear O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord." Speaking to a Jew, and knowing his understanding of this passage, Jesus told him he was "not far from the kingdom of God." Jesus was the manifestation of that One God, 1 Tim. 3:16. He was the image of the invisible God, Col. 1:15, Heb. 1:1-3. Not the second person in or of that God. All the fulness of the Godhead (Deity) dwelt in him! Col. 2:9.  Not Jesus dwelling IN the Godhead as some "second person."

It took the efforts of the "Church" in the years from 385-1517 and beyond, to put to death all who did not believe the Trinity to get "Christianity" to where it is today. That is, where the Doctrine of the Trinity is believed by the majority of "Christians." In Tertullian's day, 160-220 AD, this was not the case!

"…the majority of believers, are startled at the dispensation (of the three in one) on the ground that their very rule of faith withdrawals them from the world's plurality of gods to the one only true God;…they are constantly throwing out against us that we are preachers of two gods and three gods, while they take to themselves pre-eminently, the credit of being the worshippers of the One God." 24.)

The Orthodox Church gives great significance to Tertullian, calling him the Father of Latin Theology, and the Father of the Trinity. Yet in his day he went against the MAJORITY by believing the Trinity!  The majority were startled by such teaching!

The greatest significance of these words by Tertullian is that he was not in Israel when he made this statement! He was from Carthage, North Africa! And the majority of the believers Tertullian spoke of would NOT have been Jews! Thus the early church preached and taught its believers in the One true God! The early Church's view of the Godhead was the same as the Jew's! But with the understanding of the incarnation, the One True God manifest in flesh!

Thus we do NOT find the Trinity revealed by What is said about Jesus, What is said about His flesh, What Jesus said about Who He was, nor by What Jesus said about the supposed other "persons."

So When was the Trinity Revealed?

"The formulation of this dogma (Trinity) was the most important theological achievement of the first five centuries of the Church."

"On the basis of careful analysis of the language of the Bible, it shows, that although there is no single passage of Scripture setting forth the entire doctrine, it was the intent of the early creeds and councils to pull together the teaching of the New Testament (and, through it, of the Old Testament) about the mystery of the one God." (emphasis added)  25.)

Notice, Fortman admits it took the efforts of the Church through the first 500 years to complete the formulation of the Trinity!  In spite of its lack of support in the Scripture, the creeds and councils were able to "pull it together" over a period of 500 years!

I say, it's NOT YET revealed!

"It is so misunderstood that a majority of Christians, when asked, give incorrect and at times downright heretical definitions of the Trinity." 26.)

"Monarchianism is represented today by the United ("Jesus Only") Pentecostals.... As the differences between modalism and pure trinitarianism are rather minute, it is not surprising that a great number of Christians in mainline denominations, including Roman Catholicism, hold a modalistic conception of the Trinity, at least unconsciously" 27.)

So today, even among Trinitarians "a great number" see God as modalistic or Oneness! And the "majority of Christians" have an incorrect view of the Trinity. Sounds like the Trinity hasn't been revealed as of yet!  GOD IS ONE!


1. This figure, 7,742, is taken from Bro. Robert Sabin's "This is Eternal Life Seminar" Session 1. 1986, by Oneness Ministries
2. This figure 2,000 , is taken from Bro. Robert Sabin's "This is Eternal Life Seminar" Session 1. 1986, by Oneness Ministries
3. Holy One. 2 Kg 19:22; Job 6:10; Ps. 71:22; 78:42; 89:18; Is. 1:4; 5:19,24; 10:17,20; 12:6; 17:7; 29:19,23; 30:11,12,15; 31:1;
    37:23; 40:25; 41:14,16,20; 43:3,14,15; 45:11; 47:4; 48:17; 49:7; 54:5; 55:5; 60:9,14; Jer. 50:29; 51:5; Ez. 39:7; Hos. 11:9; Hab. 1:12; 3:3;
4. Alone. De. 32:12; 2 Kg 19:15; Ne. 9:6; Job 9:8; Ps. 83:18; 86:10; 136:4; Is. 2:11,17; 37:16; 44:24; 63:3;
5. None Else. De. 4:35,39; 1 Kg 8:60; Is. 45:5,6,14,18,22; 46:9; 47:8,10; Joel 2:27;
6. Father is used in reference to God on several occasions in the OT.  Deut. 32:6; Is. 63:16; 64:8; Jer. 31:1,9; Mal. 2:10;  Spirit in the OT is in reference to God some 87 times.  Examples: Ge. 1:2; 6:3; Ps. 139:7; Is. 40:13; 48:16; 61:1; Joel 2:28-29;  Yet, in these terms the Jews did not see separate persons in their One God!  Their One God was their Father who was a Spirit!
Genesis 1:26 reads in the Torah as "And God said, I will make man in My image, after My likeness" It then has the footnote stating, "Taking the Heb. plural form as plurals of majesty; cf. V. 27. Or lit. "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness" The Torah, By the Jewish Publication Society of America, 1962, page 4
8. The Book of Jubilee records the "angel of the presence" revealing the creation to Moses in Jubilee 2:1-14; And then the account of the building of the Tower of Babel, in Jubilee 10:22-23; it is the angels who descend with the Lord to view the events. 
9. Redeemer. Isaiah 41:14; 43:14; 44:6,24; 47:4; 48:17; 49:7,26; 54:5,8; 59:20; 60:16; 63:16;
10. Jewish Theology, by Dr. K. Kohler, 1968, pages 82-88
11. The Complete book of Jewish Observance, Leo Trepp, 1980, page 3
12. The Triune God: A Historical Study of the Doctrine of the Trinity, Edmund J. Fortman, 1972, page xv.  See also on the subject, Daniel B. Wallace, Is Intra-Canonical Theological Development Compatible with a High Bibliology?  A Paper delivered to Criswell College, 03/01/02.  "Or consider the doctrine of the Trinity.  Although it is sometimes alleged to be clearly found in the OT, one has to wonder why there is no hint of a Jewish understanding of this doctrine in the intertestamental period.  Any exegesis of the OT text that implies that the human authors were Trinitarian is both naive and indefensible." 
13. The Triune God: A Historical Study of the Doctrine of the Trinity, Edmond Fortman, 1972, pg 1
14. The Triune God: A Historical Study of the Doctrine of the Trinity, Edmund Fortman, 1972, pg 4
15. The Triune God: A Historical Study of the Doctrine of the Trinity, Edmund Fortman, 1972, pg 9
16. The Angel of the Lord. Is spoken of as appearing in several instances both in the Old & New Testaments. Some have supposed this to be the pre-existent Christ, or the Word manifest. In that there are several appearances in the New Testament, including Matthew 2:13, 19, after the birth of Christ, Mt. 28:2; after his resurrection, Acts 8:26; 12:7; after Christ ascension, I fail to see the proof to substantiate such claims. Nor do I see the need to make such a claim! There are many Oneness writers who do believe this, or their views seem to express this. See The Revelation of Jesus Christ, and God In Christ Jesus, both by John Patterson; Divine Names and Titles of Jehovah, G.T. Haywood; Revelation of Jesus Christ, Frank J. Ewart; Jehovah-Jesus, C, H. Yadon; The Deity of Jesus, Theodore Fitch;
17. The sons of God are generally believed to be angels. See Job 38:7; However, the "only begotten Son" was not mentioned!
18. The dates used for these writings are taken from The Reese Chronological Bible, 1977, pages 511, 590, 828, & 1039
19. Eternal Father is how this is rendered in The Jerusalem Bible.
20. Father Forever is how this is rendered in The New American Bible and in The Bible In Basic English
21. The New English Translation of the New Testament, 1999, page 355, Footnote 7
22. The manuscripts are noted in The Textual Commentary of the Greek New Testament by Bruce Metzger, 1977, page 16.  The dates are given from The Text of the New Testament by K. & B. Aland, 1989, Second edition, pages 128, 142, & 161. 
23. Eusebius of Ceasarea, 260-340 AD in his writings repeatedly recorded Mt. 28:19 as: Go and disciple all nations in my name, teaching them...  thus seeming to be unaware of the Trinitarian phrase for baptism.  It is omitted in 24 of 29 citations.  The five including it were believed written after the Nicean Council in 325 AD.
24. Against Praxaes, Tertullian, 160-220 AD, believed to have been written about 216 AD.
25. The Triune God: A Historical Study of the Doctrine of the Trinity, Edmund J. Fortman, 1972, page xiii
The Forgotten Trinity, James R. White, 1998, Page 16 
27. God In Three Persons, E. Calvin Beisner, 1984, page 18.


Thank YOU for visiting God Glorified!  If you have questions or comments please e-mail me!
©Copyright 2001 Randall D. Hughes